Saturday, March 14, 2020
In Frank McCourt essays In Frank McCourts Angelas Ashes the reasons for which Angela and her future husband left Ireland for New York were simple. Angela was sent to New York by her mother because she said Angela was worthless and there was plenty of room in America for useless people. As for Malachy, Angelas future husband, he escaped to New York from Ireland because he had a price put on his head from fighting with the Old IRA. He became a fugitive and his only way out was to escape to America. Later after the McCourts were married and had children, they eventually had to leave New York. They had to leave because New York was going through a depression along with the rest of America and there was not much work. The McCourts could not afford to stay in New York. Angela and Malachy also suffered the loss of there little girl, Margaret. After the loss of their daughter the McCourts could not bare to stay in New York anymore. The McCourts made a terrible mistake by leaving New York. They made a terrible mista ke because shortly after they left, America was coming out of the depression and there were more jobs. The McCourts left the hardships in New York to the even worse conditions of a poorer Ireland. In America people were free and could have more better job opportunities. By choosing to leave New York the McCourts gave up any opportunity they had to having a better life for themselves. The McCourts appeared to have gained nothing by moving back to Ireland. There were hardly any jobs and the ones that were available did not 3 pay that much. The McCourts also did not get any help from the government nor barely any help from their family that lived there. The McCourts left New York and only made their situation worse for themselves. They should have just stayed in New York so that their children could of had at least some chance of a decent life. In Frank McCourts Angelas Ashes the reasons for which Angela and her future husband lef...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Smith & Falmouth Online - Essay Example This report describes the current culture at Smith & Falmouth as well as various controls for organizational performance. In addition, recommendations to better enhance the business are proposed. At Smith & Falmouth, it is a team-oriented organization which relies on various professional and technical expertise to accomplish sizeable projects mandated at the strategic level. As a team leader, the Chief Operational Officer acts as the project leader, dictating the activities of various colleagues (at similar levels in the management hierarchy) and subordinate peers. This team-oriented philosophy consists of a leader who directs the activities of the group, demanding compliance and routine reporting on project activities. However, the transformational leadership style, according to two specific organizational theorists, involves a leader who also uses actions which are Ã¢â¬Å"visionary, values-based, emotional, intellectually-stimulating, and charismaticÃ¢â¬ (Antonakis and Hooijberg, 2008: 2). Having a project team leader who can be both the authoritarian and the inspirational leader provides a clear job description for the project leader and demands that the individual in this leadership role maintains the correct balance of personality to accomplish group unity and performance. This is very much a top-down organizational hierarchy where managers of the same level or business status cooperate via means of special projects, typical of many companies today, requiring transformational leadership. Transformational leaders should be more well-versed in psychological theory, as they often have to assess the self-worth of various staff individuals to determine how to involve the individual in group activities and to commit to organizational goals (Avolio and Bass, 2002). The Chief Operations Officer is continuously praised for their dedication to the project and their ability to coordinate group activities
Monday, February 10, 2020
What are the limits of a Social Identity approach to the social psychology of deviance - Essay Example In this context, we can look at deviances which are obvious such as taking drugs which are prohibited in society and we can examine deviant behaviour which is less commonly seen or discussed in polite society as such e.g. paying cash to avoid taxes and other white collar crimes. We can also try to understand the social identity process that takes place in the formation of groups that display socially deviant attitudes and even consider situations in which a person can be purposefully deviant within a given scenario. At the same time, an examination of other approaches to understanding deviance within society is also mandated. Other theories such as the strain/anomie theory and the social disorganization theory can be helpful in explaining parts or covering areas which are lacking in the social identity approach. However, the first step in the process remains an understanding of deviance and how the social identity approach is limited in clearly understanding the process as it occurs in society. Henri Tajfel and John Turner have been credited with the creation of the Social Identity Theory which begins with how people categorise themselves and others using labels (Johnson & MacEachern, 1985). For example, an American may categorise all people coming from the Middle East as Muslims or a person in the Middle East may think that all Americans are Christians. Once a person has made categories, s/he can then identify and create an in-group identity for themselves as being part of a group which in turn helps in increasing that personÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem. Finally, the person can have and can even be taught to have and understand the differences between the in-group individuals and out-group others. These comparisons can be mostly favourable to the group the person belongs to but they can also be negative in certain cases. For example, a person living in an economically less developed country may accept that s/he belongs to a
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Gender Inequality Essay Femininity and masculinity are socially constructed practices that reinforce gender inequality. Among the most popular variations of the social constructionist theories is the gender role theory as an early form of social constructionism (Gergen, 1985). The focus on power and hierarchy reveals inspiration stemming from a Marxist framework, utilized for instance by materialist feminism, and FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s writings on discourse. Sex is the biological differences between male and female contradicting with gender which is the culturally and socially constructed differences between female and males based on meanings, beliefs and practices that a group associates with feminity or masculinity. Emerging from the criticism of Objectivity, Social Constructionism challenges concepts of knowledge put forward by Positivism, which states that the reality and empirically-proved truths are independent of the mind. For example, Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker writes that some categories really are social constructions: they exist only because people tacitly agree to act as if they exist. Ã¢â¬ In fact, there are few scientific studies that currently support a biological basis for substantial differences between the way women and men think. Rather, research indicates there is more variation among women or men on cognitive, emotional and psychological variables than between the two groups (Fausto-Sterling, 1992). Despite this however, the idea persists that women and men are vastly different in their thinking. Hegemonic femininity, also referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"emphasized femininityÃ¢â¬ by some theorists, is a concept that was developed in tandem with hegemonic masculinity Ã¢â¬Å"to acknowledge the asymmetrical position of masculinities and femininities in a patriarchal gender orderÃ¢â¬ (Connell Messerschmidt, 2005). This theory purports that males possess physical strength, the ability to use interpersonal violence in the face of conflict, and authority while females are physically vulnerable, unable to use violence effectively, and compliant (Schippers, 2007). In order for men to maintain superiority and social dominance over women, the constructs of masculinity then must remain unavailable to women. To achieve this, any feminine characteristic that does not fall in line with hegemonic femininity then must be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"deviant and stigmatizedÃ¢â¬ (Schippers, 200). Women themselves have been made to submit to this stereotype hence leaving men to make decisions for them. Sociologists have criticized this as a misconception of meaning of gender to imply sex. Gender s not a personal trait; it is Ã¢â¬Å"an emergent feature of social situations: both as an outcome of and a rationale for various social arrangements, and as a means of legitimating one of the most fundamental divisions of society. Ã¢â¬ (West Zimmerman, 1977). The notion of womanhood or femininity is accomplished through an active process of creating gender through interacting with others in a particular social context. The perception of sexuality by others is an exte nsion of othersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s gender. Gender is never fully acquired Ã¢â¬â it has to be constantly performed and reenacted in social interactions hence gender is an accomplishment, (Alsop, Fitzsimmons Lennon, 2002). It is frequently difficult to sort out how much of a measured difference between the sexes can be attributed to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s biological composition and how much of the difference may be attributed to learned behavior. How do we know if the behavior is truly sex-based? In other words, is there something on the X or Y chromosome that predisposes men and women to be better in doing certain activities ? Or, could it be that people tend to be better at things they have practiced more and for which theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve received positive reinforcement over the years? If there are no proves of chromosomal relationships or any biological connections between feminity or masculinity and activities performed. Fathers of evolution studies like Charles Dawin proved that the act of being able to perform certain activities is based on learned practice and not man or woman distinction. This stereotype has greatly led to gender disparity and the world is trying to fight the monster created by our fore fathers misconceptions. National news accounts of hazing and important evidence point toward gender differences in hazing activities. In general, a common conclusion drawn is that hazing among men is more likely to be violent in nature and hazing among women is more likely to be psychological in nature. For example, The Courier-Journal of Louisville, Kentucky (Woolhouse, 2000) quoted Gary Powell, a Maryland attorney who has represented fraternities and sororities charged with hazing as saying Ã¢â¬Å"females tend to be less physically violent than those involving males. Such perspectives align with and also reinforce predominant understandings of differences between women and men. Analyzing the phenomenon of hazing through the lens of gender theory provides some helpful insights on both similarities and differences in hazing behaviors between female and male groups. Gender theory contends that versions of masculinity and femininity are largely learned through a process of socialization rather than essential to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s biological sex, (Jennifer Coates, 1996). Nevertheless, particular versions of femininity and masculinity rise to ascendancy during particular social periods. Bem (1993) points out that even while the predominant versions of masculinity and femininity may shift periodically, they generally operate as two poles of a gender binary where the masculine is positioned as active and the feminine as passive. In other words, that which is culturally defined as masculine oppositionally defines feminine. Active/passive, strong/fragile, aggressive/submissive, independent/dependent, and invincible/vulnerable are further examples of gender binaries that depict masculinity and femininity as polar opposites of a vast gender divide. While this particular construction is rooted in perceptions of ideal womanhood for white women specifically, it is relevant to all women because it remains a powerful and pervasive image or standard against which all women are often compared. Over the past few decades many writers have documented the differential treatment of boys and girls and the probable implications. Feminist scholars have long paved the way for considering how girls have been placed at a disadvantage as a consequence of gender stereotyping ( Pipher,1995). Studies in educational settings have documented gender bias, most often unintentional; teachers who simply give boys more quality attention that is likely to promote cognitive development and substantive learning. According to the SadkersÃ¢â¬â¢(1994) research, even though girls and boys are sitting in the same classrooms day after day, on average, boys are receiving a better quality education than the girls. Studies have also documented how children themselves police each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior according to stereotypes (Thorne, 1997). For instance, if a young boy plays with a doll in the presence of older boys, it is likely that he will be teased and will quickly learn that having a doll is outside the bounds of acceptable masculine behavior. Sexual objectification is one of the worst results of the gender fallacy. Most societies have taken women to be sex objects. Issues of rape are more rampant in women; women are perceived to be physically and emotionally weak hence being subjected to intimidation by men. I want to be clear here that I do not consider these vulnerabilities to be innate to girls/women or boys/men, but rather a consequence of complex and powerful social forces that contribute to sustaining unequal power relations as a consequence of sexism, racism, homophobia, poverty and other systems of disadvantage that render certain groups of individuals vulnerable in particular ways. Conclusion Theories that imply that gendered behavior is totally or mostly due to social conventions and culture fall into the Nature versus nurture debate. Much empirical research has been done on to what extent gendered behavior stems from biological factorsAttending to the cultural construction of gender, homophobia, and the influences of race and social class is key to promoting more complex understandings and developing effective solutions to the problem of gender disparity. Interventions in all arenas need to take gender theory into account in order to design educational and policy initiatives that will work, (Jeremy Earp 2001). Making masculinity visible is the first step to understanding how it operates in the culture and how definitions of manhood have been linked, often unconsciously, with dominance and control.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Letters and Correspondence in Austen's Emma Emma as the next step in the epistolary novel Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Emma was written at a time when the epistolary novel had just passed its peak (Cousineau, 32). Not only do letters and correspondence feature heavily in the novel, but according to April Alliston, Ã¢â¬Å"elementsÃ¢â¬ ¦ characteristic of novels of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s correspondence recur in AustenÃ¢â¬ (221). Some examples of these elements that Alliston provides are the existence of young marriageable heroines; deceased mothers, or threatening ones which, in AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s novels, have become merely negligent; and substitute mothers who pass advice on to the daughter (221). As epistolary novels were comprised entirely of letters, early novelists could assert the pretended truth of their work rather than label it as fiction (Cousineau, 28). However, one disadvantage to this practice is that artefacts such as letters are Ã¢â¬Å"inscribed in doubleness and contradiction" (Cousineau, 14). Letters serve as a medium between the letter-writers and the reader, a medium which has the potential to warp the truth according to the private and unknown whims of the writers. By adopting an omniscient narration of her charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ thoughts instead, Austen Ã¢â¬Å"[focussed] the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"gazeÃ¢â¬ on the private space from which the heroine gazes out, thus fixing her more squarely in its exemplary frame than letter fiction ever couldÃ¢â¬ (Alliston, 234). Although this method of narration Ã¢â¬Å"sacrifices the Ã¢â¬Å"documentary statusÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ that eighteenth century fiction strove to achieveÃ¢â¬ (Alliston, 236), AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s novels al low us to see directly into a characterÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts. This both promises a more reliable version of "truth" by enabling the reader to learn a characterÃ¢â¬â¢s genuine motivation, an... ...aults: Correspondences in Eighteenth-Century British and French WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Fiction. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1996. 219-241. Austen, Jane. Emma. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2003. Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions, 1997. Cousineau, Diane. Ã¢â¬Å"Letters and the Post Office: Epistolary Exchange in Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Emma.Ã¢â¬ Letters and Labyrinths. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Press, 1997. 13-51. Knoepflmacher, U. C. 2. The Importance of Being Frank: Character and Letter-Writing in Emma. Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, 1967. JSTOR 7 April 2007. Wheeler, David. The British Postal Service, Privacy, and Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"EmmaÃ¢â¬ . South Atlantic Review, 1998. JSTOR. 7 April 2007.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The sari is an unstitched strip of cloth which resembles the classic Indian women's fashion, it is usually made of soft cloth such as cotton and silk. The sari is available in many colors, and art work may be present to give the sari a more unique look. However, regardless of the abundance of colors and styles of the sari, a black sari never existed, even during the most unpleasant event, such as funerals, the Indian women wear a simple white sari to resemble sadness, and the red sari is assigned a symbol of happiness. Sari is worn in many different ways, but the most common way is to wrap it around the waist with one end over the shoulder. Indian women usually wear a choli or ravika, which is an Indian blouse, to cover up parts of their body that might be exposed due to wearing the sari the way they do. The way in which a sari is wrapped depends on which region in Indian one is in, or the sari wearer is originally from: The Western, the Eastern, the North-east and the Himalayans, the Eastern Deccan, the South and the Western Deccan (Lynton 532). The sari is typically created and given its different art forms in these aspects: Loom, dyeing, spinning, printing (Lynton 532). In fact, one can say that the art of a sari, in its completed form, that is after it has been spun, dyed and weaved on the loom, is that it tells a very distinct story (thus the different ways of wearing the garment in the different regionsÃ¢â¬âand as stated above, white is used for funerals and red saris are used to resemble and express the happiness of the wearer). The Sari gave the Indian women that attractive fashion style which made women, even foreigners to the Indian culture, wears the sari as a different, unique, and stylish outfit. Although the Sari might look simple, and available to all women in the Indian subcontinent, its price can vary significantly depending on many factors, the fabric used, the amount of art work involved, and embedded jewelry such as pearls, and even Swarovski crystals in the modern saris. The higher end saris will be worn by the upper class women to represent their rank and status, and Indian women are known also to wear fine jewelry to complement their piece of art saris. The sari is a rather erotic garment Ã¢â¬âfor nothing holds the garment in place excepting how the material is wrapped around the wearerÃ¢â¬â¢s body. The sari is such a symbol of India that the women have grown to make their identities through the wearing of a sari. The sari is a nostalgic garment that breeds itself as a cultural icon of Indian that at once defines the women as well as their status. A woman wearing a sari is immediately recognized as Indian Ã¢â¬â thereby cementing the sari as a symbol of nationalism for these women of Indian as well as traditionalists (Menon 11). The sari is at once a traditionalist garment as well as a sexually alluring one. The fabrics that are used in making a sari are typically of silk Ã¢â¬â thus, the woman wearing the sari is constantly covered in this smooth fabric that is very pleasing to the touch. Some silks are spun so light that it feels as though the wearer is not wearing anything Ã¢â¬â this of course is appealing to the opposite sex if not for the wearer. The sari itself is beautifully accentuates the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body Ã¢â¬â her curves and her movements give a hushed rustle as she walks and the way in which the silk is spun allows the light to cascade over the garment giving a glimpse of the figure beneath its folds. It is no wonder that the sari is such a sought after icon of a country and why it is being adapted to other countries. Thus, the garment is twofold in its inclusion in Indian society Ã¢â¬â it accentuates the female form but perhaps it also stifles a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of individuality. There is no doubt that the sari Ã¢â¬â outside of the Indian tradition has a definite erotic effect, whether intended or not. Despite that the sari covers up most of the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s figure it is in the subtler nuisances of the fabricÃ¢â¬â¢s design that allow for a re-configuring of that garmentÃ¢â¬â¢s use outside of the traditionalistÃ¢â¬â¢s mode of thinking. Although much of the world is becoming westernized Ã¢â¬â that is to say that much of the world is becoming more accustomed to wearing American fashion (i. e. Jimmy Choo, punk, etc. that wearing a sari in Indian or outside of the country, many women would be seen as old fashioned or as traditionalists, Ã¢â¬Å"As a symbol of Indian-ness itself, it represents not a compact nationality so much as an aspiration what Khilnani has called the idea of India which people struggle to live up to as worthy inheritors of a great and ancient culture, an India that transcends regions and diversity to reconstitute itself at a highe r plane. As a result and as one fashion commentator perceptively put it, to violate the integrity of the sari is akin to burning the American flagÃ¢â¬ (Menon 12). However, there may also be another reason that Indian women wear a sari Ã¢â¬â perhaps there is little else in a traditionalist culture that is available for them to wear or anything that they would be allowed to wear. Perhaps other cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s fashion (progressive fashion) is seen as unsuitable for an Indian woman to wear Ã¢â¬â thus, the garment, while being a major source of history is also in a way effective with womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and the lack of them in this part of the mindset of Indian culture (Menon 11). The reverse of this is that certain women in Indian culture use the sari in order to express how in control of themselves they are by the way in which they wear the garment. Working women will wear their garment differently than women who tend to a house and family and do not work outside of the home. Either sentiment may be true but what is most assuredly true is that the sari can be worn with pride or not depending on the wearer, Ã¢â¬Å"This elevated sari has an advanced capacity for good and for bad. Perhaps the single most common comment we heard about the sari is that it makes a woman the most beautiful she could ever becomeÃ¢â¬ ¦In a society where power itself is generally thought of as having a female aspect, in the for of shakti, the sari simultaneously augments combines and Ã¢â¬ËtotalisesÃ¢â¬â¢ the possibilities of aesthetic beauty, female mastery, sexuality and the cult of the maternalÃ¢â¬ (Banerjee 236). Thus, the sari may in fact give a subtle indication of power by the wearer depending on the ancient traditions on how it is made, the symbols on it, and especially the way in which it is worn. In either case the sari may be considered a work of art in itself for the way in which it must be weaved or loomed, dyed, and the type of material used to place the dyes upon if not the way in which it is also worn. All of these components of the garment add up to a subtly sexy and erotic material that despite covering up its wearer makes her the more sensual for it; for the sari is a garment that places its emphasis on the way in which it moves, it glides around the wearer in traditional form.
Monday, January 6, 2020
New Deals Effect on the Depression in the USA in the 1930s The depression in America was a total breakdown after the boom of the 1920s. Throughout the depression people lost theirs businesses, jobs, and houses. Companies had to cut back on production, so people lost their jobs. Some companies had to shut down completely. Banks went bust, as people couldnt pay back what they owed. Also when people heard that banks were going bust they panicked and tried to take their savings out of the banks. People had lost their confidence and didnt want to buy any of the new products that had brought America its earlier success. Nobodies job was safe, and so they all had to save to pay for such simpleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He began by asking for special emergency powers for the first 100 days that he was President. During this time Roosevelt had started the New Deal. The New Deal was meant to give relief to poverty, recover the economy, and also to make America better for the ordinary people. One of the first things Roosevelt did was to sort out the banking crisis. The way he did this was by introducing the emergency-banking act in March 1933. This meant that all the banks were closed for 4 days, and during this time inspectors looked at the accounts of every bank. If the had been managed properly, but had been forced out of business, then the government gave them money to re-open them. The reason this worked was because the people of America kept their savings in the bank. Americans kept their savings in the bank because they had confidence in Roosevelt. He did regular fireside chats on the radio, in which he explained his conduct to the American people, and he ask the people to work with him. So this shows that the people really did trust him. Roosevelt also helped the farmers. Farmers had been having problems before the depression with producing more food than the people needed. So Roosevelt set up one of his many alphabet agencies to help the farmers. They were called alphabet agencies because people found it easier to remember theirShow MoreRelated The Most Significant Aspect of RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s Presidency and New Deal up to 19413261 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesThe Most Significant Aspect of RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s Presidency and New Deal up to 1941 In this essay I am going to be assessing which was the most significant aspect of Franklin Delano RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s Presidency, by looking at four different aspects of it, and then applying tests to each aspect. I will be looking into RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s Economic Policies, Economic Ideas, Role of the Presidency and the Electoral performance of the Democratic party Ã¢â¬â and then, applying the following testsRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesOrganizational Behavior This page intentionally left blank Organizational Behavior EDITION 15 Stephen P. Robbins Ã¢â¬âSan Diego State University Timothy A. Judge Ã¢â¬âUniversity of Notre Dame i3iEi35Bj! Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services:Read MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 Pagespublication by the instructor of this course. The instructor is solely responsible for the editorial content of such materials. 111 MANGGEN ISBN: 0Ã¢Ëâ390Ã¢Ëâ58539Ã¢Ëâ4 Management Contents FeigenbaumÃ¢ËâFeigenbaum Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Power of Management Capital 1. New Management for Business Growth in a Demanding Economy 1 1 Text JonesÃ¢ËâGeorge Ã¢â¬ ¢ Contemporary Management, Fourth Edition I. Management 17 17 2. The Evolution of Management Thought HughesÃ¢ËâGinnettÃ¢ËâCurphy Ã¢â¬ ¢ Leadership, Fifth Edition I. Leadership